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Hydraulic Machines

Hydraulic Machines - Introduction

The subject ' Hydraulic Machines' may be defined as that branch of Engineering - science which deals with the machines run by water under some head or raising the water to higher levels. This course is taught in all mechanical engineering universities and colleges as a core course. Some institutes prefer to teach this subject as a part of fluid dynamics.

Impact of Water Jets

What is the impact of jets of water in hydraulic machines and fluid dynamics? What force does a water jet imposes on different surfaces like plane surface, curved surface and moving curved vanes etc.
 The following relations are important :

(a) Force exerted by a jet of water impinging normally on a fixed plate,
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